Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Death of a Salesman Idealism and Truth Essay Example for Free

Death of a Salesman Idealism and Truth Essay ?Idealism describes the belief or pursuit of a perfect vision often based upon unrealistic principles. This pursuit is often contrasted and opposed by truth. The truth and reality in an individual’s life is what enables this person to remain grounded and down to earth. An individual must set themselves high expectations in order to be their best, but they must also acknowledge the fact that everything they desire is not achievable. The imbalance of idealism and truth in an individual’s life can have calamitous effects. It is significant in an individual’s life because it can lead to the deterioration of an individual’s sanity, destruction of family relationships and ultimately death. This is exemplified in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, by Willy Loman. Willy spends his whole life pursuing the American Dream. This pursuit leaves him in debt and lacking less than a sliver of sanity. This man lacks the capacity to face the truth; the reality of his situation. The negative effect that his dream has on his family and life is simply overlooked and ignored. As Willy’s life swerves out of control, he tumbles deeper into the abyss of his idealism, to a point of no return. The inability for an individual to achieve a single-minded dream can lead to the deterioration of their sanity. In Willy’s case, he has spent his whole life pursuing the American Dream; a dream that is impossible to achieve. His inability to cope with the failure of his life at first simply causes him to feel lost, but eventually causes him to go insane. Ironically enough this man, so set on having the perfect life, has an affair with a secretary of one of the buyer. This is simply a financial transaction of gifts for sex and access to the buyers. Willy does this to escape the truth of his life, and in the process completely contradicts his goals. In an attempt to protect himself from the reality of his life, he goes into self-protection mode. His own mind morphs his memories to achieve and establish his desires. Willy’s constant flashbacks lay the groundwork to support that he is becoming senile and that his idealistic tendencies caused him to lose the ability to recognize reality from illusion. Willy is a very insecure individual, and he tries to make himself look better by lying to himself and his family. In his world of delusion, Willy is a hugely successful man. He disguises his profound anxiety and self-doubt with extreme arrogance. Biff nails it on the head when he points out the fact that Willy â€Å"had all the wrong dreams. All, all, wrong. † The overpowering pursuit of idealism over truth can lead an individual to lack the ability to cope with reality. Willy has a lot of potential, but he also has a whopping case of self-deception paired with misguided life goals. He has based his whole life on supporting others and does not know how to live any other way. The effect of lacking a manly figure during his youthful development is substantial effect in how Willy raises his own sons. In Willy’s pursuit of the American Dream, he clearly instills in his sons that being well-liked is more important than character. By emphasizing likability as being the most desirable quality for success he places a higher premium on outward projection over inner strength of character. He simply passes on these unrealistic qualities to his sons. â€Å"I never in my life told him anything but decent things. † Willy’s memories reveal that the values with which he raised his sons has made Biff comes to consider himself exceptional and entitled to whatever he wants regardless of how hard he works or whether it harms others. Biff’s perfect illusion is shattered when he discovers that his father is having an affair and he feels hateful and confused about his father’s actions. His excessive pursuit of idealism shatters Willy’s relationship with his son; this is something that he does not have the ability to repair. Willy’s pursuit of idealism in his life was extremely unrealistic and eventually prevented him from having the ability to see the truth in life. He spent his whole life trying to provide for his family. He wanted the life of a salesman. To be well-liked and have a massive funeral when he dies. The reality is that he spent his whole life pursuing unrealistic dreams based on negative personal values. Willy himself points out that he’s â€Å"worth more dead than alive. † It’s quite tragic that Willy believes he has to kill himself to feel that he is worth something to his family. The reality of the situation is that his death is in vain. The Loman’s only had one more payment left on the house, and don’t actually need the money anymore. But in his blinded illusion, Willy cannot see through or cope with his failure. This causes him to believe that he is worth nothing more alive and kills himself to enable his family to collect his life insurance money. The unevenness of idealism and truth in an individual’s life can lead to the loss of sanity, deterioration of relationships and even death. By having a good balanced of idealism and truth, there is a greater potential that an individual will discover contentment in life. While pursuing an ideal, an individual may be confronted with truth that must be recognized, and if ignored will have cataclysmic effect. Idealism provides a good source of motivation to strive for excellence and truth reminds us that we are all flawed. Together, with an appropriate balance of both, you have the tools to live a life happy.

Ethnics Of Orang Asli Theology Religion Essay

Ethnics Of Orang Asli Theology Religion Essay Lanoh is one of the ethnics of Orang Asli original people from Malaysia. Previously, Lanoh used to be nomads but now many of them stay permanently in Hulu Perak,a district of Perak. Lanoh people are officially classified under the Negrito subgroup but in term of the language they use the Temiar language. Most Lanoh are dark-skinned and have frizzy hair. Their features resemble the Papua New Guinean or east African people. Location Lanoh as well as other Semang people remained in low-land areas, Near Malays settlement. They prefer to live near river valleys, which is the most foot-hills, The low population density of Lanoh people in pre-resettlement time has caused them to spread between a few principle villages and campsites (basically in Perak area. Among their villages are Air Bah, Tawai, and Cenawi village. Last time, the Lanoh villages and camp[s were small, with a population rarely exceeding thirty or thirty-five people. Last time, they were also had a mobile lifestyle but it ended after Malaysias independence (1957). On 1993, Air Bahs status as resettlement village was finalized when a two-storey mosque was elevated to house Muslim proselytizers during their intermittent to the village. Within the plan of Malay nation state, the Lanoh way of life , like that of Orang Asli , had undergone remarkable changes , many due to land loss, logging, deforestation, new forms of subsistence and commercial activities. Since 1980s , the Lanoh people were regrouped and permanently resettled ,primarily in the village of Air Bah. They have been struggling to reconcile these changes with their cultural values and customary of life. Their house has Temiar-style structure which is more stable than their Lanoh-style lean-to-shelters . They prefer to stay in those houses compared to the large government-supplied plank houses. The size of the houses does not necessarily reflect peoples status or ethnic affiliation. In term of life style, people in Air Bah prefer to spend time with whom they feel close , not necessarily their conjugal family members. Beliefs . Most Lanoh people practice ethnic religion (66%), 33% of them are Muslims and 1% of them are Christians http://www.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=12987rog3=MY .They have a belief of naturalism: Plants and animals energize the own spiritually bestowing upon humans a humbling experience of bondage and love for nature. They also practice an unwritten law that all of the animals caught in the forest should suffer no pain in captivity. According to people in Air Bah, a shaman is a person who can teach the young people stories and good things about Lanoh. Previously, Lanoh shamans also believed to posses invaluable powers such as they could talk to elephants, the guardian father of the Lanoh, and as guide people in spiritual roads. Marriage and family For Lanoh people, they dont restrict marriage between ethnics or subgroups and they are more linear. They get to choose their own partner and their parents will not interfere in their relationship. If a couple are living together, they are consider married. There is no wedding celebration, but the bride will just have to give some presents to the bride groom and his in laws. Only young couples get divorce and usually, the Lanoh people do not get divorce if they already have a child. They belief that after labor, a woman cannot touch the ground for two weeks and salt cannot be added into their food for two to three months after labor. They also cannot consume oily food. Death When someone died, the chief of the village and nearest family members will be told about the news. After the dead body is cleaned, for women, they will put on their jewelries such as ring, necklace and bracelets. Then the dead body will be wrapped in a clean new cloth and then wrapped in a mat. The same procedure applies to a mans body except they are wrapped without jewelries. At the cemetery, a 2 meters hole will be digged and the dead body will be buried with their belongings. Then two sticks will be placed on their grave to represent where is the head and where is the legs. At the head part, relatives will light a fire so that wild animals wont come near the grave. If the husband died, the wife cannot wears make up for 7 days. KENSUI TRIBE At the edge of the Baling district area, there is an indigenous settlement known as the Perkampungan Orang Asli Lubok Legong. It is located at the Mukim Siong, 13 km from Pekan Baling and 188 km from Bandaraya Alor Setar. This settlement is own by the indigenous people of the Kensiu tribe. Based on the Jabatan Hal Ehwal Orang Asli (2003) information, this settlement is the only one available for the indigenous people of the Kensui tribe, this is the sole Negrito exist in Kedah and generally the peninsular of Malaysia. Due to their resemblance to the Negro in Africa, they are classified as the Negrito. History Based on the research done by Dr. Iskandar Carey (1970), from his visit to the Perkampungan Orang Asli in Kampung Lalang around 1968 and 1969, the Kensui tribe has their own settlement. Even though the early history had stated that they lived in norm. This tribe was said to have the smallest number of people compared to the other orang asli tribes in Malaysia. There were also said to be the oldest tribe.Basically the Kensui tribe was said to have family relations at Kampung Rai, Yala, Thailand.While based on the facts, the Kensui people orinigated from Kuala Kedau and Ulu Legong. During the Japanese invasion to Tanah Melayu between 1941 and 1942, the Kensui tribe had escaped all around the Baling district mostly to the Parit Panjang, Kampung Bendang Man di Sik, Kampung Sg. Celak and Kampung Tiak di Kupang, Baling. Nowadays, settlements have been build by the government which is the Perkampungan Orang Asli Kampung Lubuk Legong. The Kensui tribe has been residencing there since 1957 at the No 3623 lot which was offered in the year 1958 as the Rezab Orang Asli with an area of 428 acres. According to M.W. Tweedie, a historian had stated in his book Pre-History, those who live in the peninsular which are known as the Negrito had existed since 8000 BC living in caves and hunting animals. During the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic period around 5000 BC, Kedah was used to be inhabited by the Austronesia which became the ancestors of the Negrito, Sakai and the other tribes. Its hard to describe the physical characteristics of the Negrito due to their division into 4 subgroups of the Kensui tribe known as Mos, Nakil (atau Dalem), Hetot and Tanjen. Overall they have fine-small curly hairs, dark in colour skin and average height of 5 feet below, they have wide iris similar to the West African and most of them are similar to the New Guinea indigenous, Papuans. The identity of the Kensui tribe can solely be described by their culture, material and their life style. They show little to none agricultural practise. This may be due to their origin as one of the fully nomadic indigenous people. Their culture includes the practice of nose piercing and residence build for temporary shelter from the weather and wind. The Kensui tribe moves from one place to another for hunting and scavenging food as well as forest materials. They would move to another place if they found that the area is no longer productive. Work arrangements For the adults of the Kensui tribe, rubber tapping is one of their daily routine. The Projek Getah Mini Estet Fasa 1 dan 2 conducted through RISDA was a success for them. The society gained interest of RM200.00 per month for each family. But there are still among them that are unable to perform the work. Besides that, The Kensui tribe are still practice scavenging forest material to be sold to the outside society and for their own usage. They also have skills producing various handcrafts form the forest materials. Some of the people also work as labour in farms. The society of the indigenous people from the Kampung Lubuk Legong are under the supervision of the pentadbiran Jabatan Hal Ehwal Orang Asli (JHEOA) Perak dan Kedah operating in Ipoh, Perak. While at district level, it is under the pentadbiran Pejabat Hal Ehwal Orang Asli Daerah Hulu Perak dan Baling operating in Grik, Perak. In every village, a leader was appointed as the penghulu among themselves to hold the responsibility of governing the village and a Jawatankuasa Kemajuan Kampung (JKKK) was established to help the government. For now, the title penghulu is hold by Encik Rosman Bin Isa. He is the fourth appointed penghulu. Education level The education levels among the Kensui tribe are extremely low compared to the other indigenous tribes. The numbers of educated people are too little. According to the penghulu of the tribe, the year 2005 has been a history to them for one of them had successfully graduated from a form 1 level education which was the highest level of education until now. Marriage customs and family institutions The life concept which prioritised equality and similarity reflects from the whole life style of the society. Most of the Kensui societies in the settlement have a close relation with each other. There are only two people that had married a Malay woman from the Kampung Baru and one had married an Indonesian. Those who are Islam in the Kensui tribe gets married based on the syariat and the law of the Islamic family. Their marriages were conducted by the religion officer from the Jabatan Agama Islam Negeri Kedah. While for those who are practising animism, their marriages are based on their believes. There are no ceremonies held for the marriage. When a man reaches a time of age where he would like to be married, he just need to get the approval of the women he wants to marry without needing the blessing of both of her parents. If the woman agrees, the man would send her materials in the form of cloth, knife and tobacco to the womans father as a sign that the marriage was on. Later on they would live together as a sign they have married. In the family system of the Kensui society, the family relations are bilateral meaning that it is based on the decent of both parents based on the mens generation There are still abstinence ban practices until now in the family institution of the Kensui society, such as bride is not allowed to interact with the groom and vice versa. The groom is also forbid to interact with the mother-in-law, while the male and the female relatives which are not married are forbidden to interact with their sister and brother-in-laws, nor to speak of their names. They would use an intermediate for any interactions required with the father and the in-laws. Marriages between people of the same tribe are normal but there are some that had married with the Temiar tribe from Perak. Most of the Kensui people are Muslim, 163 of them had convert to Islam while 80 of them remains with animism. They have their own tradisional cultural performance know as the Sewang dance. During the performance, they would wear clothing made out of plants a head ornament made out of coconut leaves. Social organisation The traditional life of the Kensui combines five to six families forming a group. In most cases, all of the family members in a settlement or a camp have close family relations or cognate tribe. Each of the group is led by the oldest member, but he does not have any specific title, one of the leaders will be chosen based on the age, experience and knowledge in faith healing care and mysticism factor. The chief will have the power to make decision such as where so set camp and the time to move but it is still subject based on the view and advice from the member that he is leading. Generally the concept of having a leader is less stressed in the society at group level, they are more concentrate on egalitarian and solidarity. The important element in a social organisation is the family nucleus consisting of husband, wife and child. The settlements for the Negrito are called the kumpulan tabir angin where the society would live under a roof as a momentary shelter. They babies would be would cradle in turns during the moving, with every group consisting a husband, wife and child but only the little ones can stay with them. For boys who are older than 7 years old will have a separate shelter not far from their parents, as for the girls will live in the same shelter with their parents but separated by a bond fire between their beds. All of the decision which are made falls under the fathers decision for he is the head of the family The social organisation of the Kensui tribe in Baling has changed a lot. They have live in kampung Lubuk Lenggong for a long time that the nomad life style has been less practised nowadays. This is due to the existence of a permanent settlement build by JHEOA and supervised by the entire agency. The organisation has also changed, replaced by a settlement unit under the leadership of a penghulu. The penghulu still has his authority to maintain their traditions, but the mode of his appointment has changed based on 2 categories which are descendent and election The basic requirement for a penghulu is that he should be able to read and write the allowance given to the penghulu is based on categories which are A, B and C. these categories are based on the development of the members in the academic and so on. Beliefs The Kensui people believe are the same as the other Negritos, a large number of them still holds on to their traditional believes. This believes promotes the importance of Tok Batin, Karei and Menoi as beings with a ultimate power. The symbol of this power has an eternal nature and it is also regarded as the existence of a supernatural power or a living soul known as the orang hidup or the human that lives forever. The symbol of power and the depletion of power between human and those that live forever are called Cenoi. Cenoi tapn has been regarded as the same level with god or sultan. Cenoi Tapn has the characteristics of a mawas (tawo). The top part of his body is young while the bottom part is old. Cenoi Tapn was said to control the life of the Kensui society and that his anger would be conveyed through thunder and lightning (Kaei). This system was preserved and controlled by the authority known as the Halak, which plays a part as the intermediate between the Kensui people with th e one that holds the ultimate power in their believes. Halak also plays a role in the traditional medicine practice. Both system of medicine and religion consist of ceremony known as the panoh, which involves dancing and singing. Another ritual conducted for the same purpose is called sawan, which also combines singing and dancing in the process. The obedience to both of the system is also reflected through the respect, taboos, values and norms of society. The Halak also known as the Tok pawang are believed to be able to enter the spirit world by making themselves high. Tok pawang was believed to be able to connect with the Chinoi and sometimes becomes the intermediate for help in their agriculture. But nowadays, almost half of the Kensui society has convert to Islam. Language The Kensui have their own language to communicate. But nowadays Malaysian language has been the language used among them. Almost all of the Kensui people are able to speak in Bahasa Malaysia. Even though the old folks are still rusty in speaking in Malaysian language they do understand the language. There are also small children that are unable to speak in their original language due to the mix marriage and the interaction with the outsiders. Some of them can also speak in Thai language. For those that ave relationship with the Temiar tribe they can also speak their language. Burenhult (2001) states that the commonly inherited words of Kensiu would include basic semantic categories including body parts, certain animal and plant terms, natural phenomena like fire, stone, water, basic activities and states like die, eat, stand, walk, basic qualities such as big, small , personal pronouns such as I and you etc. Some of the native Kensiu words for jungle, hill, water tree, leaf and fruit s are kaheb, laheb, betiu, tom ihuk, helik and kebek respectively. The Kensiu also have rich and diverse lexical items associated with their natural environment particularly, the flora and the fauna. Some of them include awei (rattan), ihuk peng (gaharu), sieh (betel leaves), peyang (tapioca), emet (tiger), pelik (bats), ikop (snake), kensen (fox), jelong (flies), nguak (butterflies) and awai (tortoise), just to name a few. Among the exotic animals caught by the Kensius include the protected species, the Malayan Pengolin, Kensiu term, mantei. They are normally exchanged for cash to the local Chinese in the nearby town. Known for their aphrodisiac property, they usually fetch a good price. Malay loan words Beside those commonly inherited words of flora and fauna, there is also evidence to suggest substantial borrowing of words from Malay language. The findings of this study show that Kensiu language has a high number of lexical items that have been borrowed from Malay. Out of 255 lexical items given to the respondents in the study, 149 (58.4%) of the elicited lexical items were Malay loan words. In addition to this, there are also extensive Kensiu words which are code mixed with Malay words e.g. kutip kebek (kutip buah), kumpul awei (kumpul rotan), tom bungak (pokok bunga), bilik betew (bilik air). The findings of the study also reveal that lexical items that are associated with modern living and technologies are all Malay borrowings. They include pensil (pencil), radio (radio), telefon bimbit (hand phone), bas (bas), doktor (doctor). This extensive Malay borrowing suggests their ongoing interaction with Malay speakers. It should be mentioned here that the Kensiu community in this study are in constant interaction with the Malays as their settlement area in Lubuk Legong is in close proximity with the Malay villages. SEMAI TRIBE Background The Malay Island had been inhabited by human that were known as Austronesian or Malay-Polynesia around 5000 years ago according to the historical researchers. They were said to have originated from South of China and Taiwan. Their migration to south was done starting from the Philippines heading towards the Indonesian Islanad until the edge of the mainland Asia, Pacificislands and Madagascar. The Semai are a semi sedentary people living in the center of the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia , known especially for their nonviolence. The Semai is one of the tribes that belong to the Senoi ethnic group. It is thought that the Semai are the remnants of the original, ancient and widespread population of Southeast Asia. According to Keene State Colleges Orang Asli Archive, in 1991 there were 26,627 Semai living on the Malay Peninsula. Northwest Pahang and south Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, central mountain area. This number has increased in recent years with the advent of better nutrition as well as improved sanitation and healthcare practices. These numbers, however, does not include other peoples of Semai or mixed descent, most of whom have assimilated into other cultures and have abandoned their ancestral tribal lands in order to seek better employment and education opportunities, especially in the larger cities. Language The Semai people speak Semai language, an Austro-Asiatic language belonging to the Mon-Khmer language family. But most of Semai people in Malaysia have knowledge of Malay language and they can speak well in Malay. Semai people are very tolerant person and they did not force other people to do things that they do not like it. For example, the word  Bood  has a very interesting meaning. It means not feeling like doing something, for any reason, for example, sickness, shyness or laziness. If it is translated into todays language, it is simply one of our fundamental rights, the right to say no!. The children of Semai are taught the concept of bood from an early age. If a parent asks a child to do something and the child replies I bood, in other words, I dont feel like doing, the matter is closed. The parents would not force their children to do something that they do not want to do. The Semais children Spirituality and beliefs Most of Semai people are animist but but a large minority profess Christianity. They are still gripped by their old beliefs. The Semais main festival is the Genggulang. It is a festive ritual to appease land spirits for a good harvest where the people worship the rice spirit. In this ritual, the spirit is offered with sacrificial chickens, flowers, and unhusked rice. Nowadays, the festival has lost much of its religious meaning, as it has become more of a cultural event similar to the way Chinese celebrate Lunar New Year or Westerners celebrate Christmas. Besides that, Chuntah is another festive ritual that is performed to make the evil spirits leave. Chuntah is performed in the middle of a storm where a man collects rain in a bamboo container until it is full, he then gashes his skin and lets the blood run into the container. The Semai usually have restrictions on eating animals that straddle two groups. Snakes are usually not eaten because moving menhar (animals that lives on the or in the trees) have legs, but snakes live on land, so the Semai consider this unnatural. CULTURE Marriage The day of their marriage, there are several things that the bride and the grooms need to do, which are : -both of them need to berinai at their own houses. -the grooms needs to cut their hair -both of them needs to take a bath with a water that contains a few slices of lemon that have been spell for a good reason. After that the bride and the groom will wear their beautiful wedding dress in their respective houses. The bride will be wearing the wedding dress that have been given by the groom which are called salin tiga dress. Because they have been bath with spiritual lemon water, there are a few orders that mst be followed by both of them , -in a duration of 3 days they are not allowed to leave their village because they might be disturbed by the evil spirits. -in a duration of 7 days also they are not allowed to leave their village for the same reason. C:UsersfarhanDocumentsstudysem 2H.Eru_01.2.jpg The bride Birth When the wife is pregnant, there are a few things that both of the parents must not do to protect the baby and to get a healthy babies. -They cant get close to animals that they believe can harm the baby such as tortoise, monkeys, and snakes. -The fathers family members are not allowed to installing or nailing any part in the house. -They are not allowed to be near to death people. -Not allowed to eat venison, pork and partridge meat. To determine the date of the baby will be born and the health of the baby, the mother will meet the village midwife. The midwife will be the responsible person to stay with the mother until the baby are born. After the baby had born, the mother will abstain for a month. In confinement, the mother are not allowed to eat vegetables, fish without scales , fish that are venomous, chillies, cooking oil, coconut cold water except coffee and warm water. The mothers are only being served or only eat rice with grilled fish or fish that are cooked without oil. They are also not allowed to take a bath with cold water. They can only bath in river after the confinement but need to have a talisman. The ingredients needed for the talisman are a few of small stones, flour and turmeric. The half of the turmeric need to be chew by the mother and spit in the river while the small stones will be seeding in upstream and downstream of the river. Then the mother can take a bath in the river. Death When there is a death in the village, all the members of the village will gather around the house of the person who had died and stop their other work because they are afraid that the spirit of the person will get angry. The body will be buried the next day, so at night all the villagers will stand guard at the house of the person who died until morning to make sure that the bad spirit will not bother the dead person. Flame will be lit around the house to chase away bad spirit that cause the dead of the person. The children will be given talisman by smudging charcoal on both of their eyebrows or on both of their sole. Before the body was buried, it will be wash and wrapped with a new cloth or white cloth then with a mats and it will be buried into a grave of one meter deep. Before overlain, 3 clod of soil that have mix with charcoal will be placed on both of the ears and at the chest of the dead man. It is to cut off the ties between the dead man and his family. If it is not done, they believe that the family of the dead man will fall sick and eventually die. After being buried, a crafted wooden block is placed on the grave as marker then food, water and cigarettes that have been light up are paced on the grave for 6 days. On the sixth day, the crafted wood that were place on the grave is burnt to show that the spirit of the death person has gone to another world. It is then replace by tombstone and one of the family members will hold the tombstone and speak out the death person name to wake up his spirit to fete the food and drinks that have been placed on the grave. Home and taboos There are 4 different kinds of houses that the Semai people have in one village, which are : Yeau Home (Deg Yeau) Ran Home (Deg Ran) Bunch of Banana Home (Deg Pisang Sesikat) Ordinary Home Furthermore, for Semai people there are a few taboos that they should follow to make sure that they are not being harm by the bad spirits or the Nyanik (demons) and to have a peaceful life. MAH MERI TRIBE The  Mah Meri  is one of the 18 groups named by the Malaysian government Orang Asli living in West Malaysia. They are of the  Senoi  subgroup. Most of the members of the Mah Meri tribe live along the coast of South Selangor from  Sungei Pelek  up to  Pulau Carey, although there is at least one Mah Meri Community on the other side of the  Klang River. According to the Orang Asli Office of the Malaysian government,  they numbered around 2200 in 2005.Most of the Mah Meri live in small villages (kampungs) on the fringes of other cities and on Pulau Carey, which has five separate villages of Mah Meri. There is no information on their origin, but the Mah Meri tribe claims to have walked the earth for as long as one can remember. They live in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, and Johor. The Mah Meri language, sometimes also called  Besisi  is one of the  Mon-Khmer  language groups but has also borrowed from Malay. Mah Meri Villages Name of Villages The Nearest Town Kampung Orang Asli Bukit Bangkong Sungei Pelek Kampung Orang Asli Tg Sepat Kampung Orang Asli Sungei Kurau Pulau Carey Kampung Orang Asli Sungei Judah Pulau Carey Kampung Orang Asli Sungei Bumbun Pulau Carey C:UsersFaizDesktopmah meriimages (2).jpgC:UsersFaizDesktopmah meriZA (34).jpgC:UsersFaizDesktopmah meriimages (1).jpg Lifestyle Living in small wooden houses set in harmony with the surrounding forces of nature, the Mah Meri prefer to remain forest people. Hence in their villages, life seems relatively untouched by modern progress. They are known for their woodcarving skills, yet their economic activity remains rooted in agriculture and fishing. They resist employment outside of their community. The Mah Meri are soft-spoken and trusting with a propensity to laugh in the face of adversity. While the adults carry out their daily economic activities, the children often ride their fathers bicycles and play their favorite games with sticks, seeds, and other objects. Surprisingly, the Mah Meri community has managed to preserve a tradition of spiritual woodcarving that is truly world class in terms of quality of its craft and artistry. The art, which has rich mythological meanings behind the images and symbols, is handed down from father to son. As not many people seem interested in such animistic carvings, the young Mah Meri do not see it as a profitable trade. C:UsersFaizDesktopmah meriimages.jpg Religion Primary religion : Ethnic religion Major Religions: C:UsersFaizDesktopmah meriimages (3).jpg Buddhism 0.00 % Christianity 0.00 % (Evangelical: 0.00 %) Ethnic Religions 67.00 % Hinduism 0.00 % Islam 33.00 % Non-Religious 0.00 % Other / Small 0.00 % Marriage Mah Meri also inquire charity ceremony, engagement and wedding as the Malay community. The difference is only maintained their customary ceremonial demon exorcisms in its own way, as well as ritual held to inform the ancestors that their grandchildren will hold their wedding ceremony. The event was considered important to ensure that the marriage ceremony is safe, secure, blessed and happy until the children and grandchildren. In the suit, Tok Batin will see the groom preparations to carry to the proposal such as gold rings, cosmetics, kidney stone bowl and requirements such as mortar and other ceremonial. The bride undergoes sharpening teeth. Sharpen the teeth is considered an important custom made. Use of black cloth as a marker placed on the tooth to be sharpened tooth spacing. Ring will be used to sharpen teeth flat and then smoked. This aims to make the prospective bride is always radiant and prevent tetanus during the wedding ceremony.      Mah Meri play traditional Aboriginal musical instrument to celebrate the bride on marriage. However, the desire of the men would like to have a girl of his choice will be disqualified even if the proposal and the wedding day is set, if the expenses for the purpose of the event is not sufficient. If only in the past three months, the men failed to provide a tight, self agreement is considered void and the groom are doing fraud against Tok Batin. As with any other kind of ethnic wedding, they are also making preparations to provide the dais. They will decorate the dais cooperate by putting various patterns woven palm leaves and brightly colored flowers in every corner stage. Touch use palm leaves used by indigenous peoples Mah Meri quarter of uniqueness and difference is displayed with other indigenous tribes in the country. At the ceremony, the wedding ceremony begins with the groom shaman leads a group of girls together turn circles around the bride and smoked nets covered with incense. Ceremony was to cast out demons and avoid bad things. Rotation seven times and on the last lap, the groom should get the bride and flower turns. When the wedding ceremony, a ritual performed as a symbolic coin toss to determine the direction of freedom bride living in the household. During makan beradab, monitoring will ensure the bride eat and ended simultaneously so that they live a happy and long lasting household coped. If one of the bride in advance of their meal, it is believed that the commission will invite accidents in the household in the f

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Affect of Computers on Society Essay -- essays research papers

Computers and Society The first modern digital computers were developed in the 1940s for military purposes that arose during World War II. These computers filled entire rooms. They took hours to perform complex mathematical operations. In the 1970s, the first personal computers were sold. Fitting on a desktop, they were much faster and more powerful than the computers that had once filled large rooms. Computers were also affordable to individual consumers, making it possible for many people to use them for personal, business, and academic needs. By the mid-1990s, laptop computers capable of millions of calculations per second had been developed. Currently, nearly half of American homes have a personal computer, and businesses have come to rely on computers for nearly every function. Computers are becoming smaller and more powerful than they were. In future, it looks like computers will be used in almost every aspect of people’s lives and we might not even realize how significant this effect might b e. Lots of business owners and just common people are excited and optimistic a... Affect of Computers on Society Essay -- essays research papers Computers and Society The first modern digital computers were developed in the 1940s for military purposes that arose during World War II. These computers filled entire rooms. They took hours to perform complex mathematical operations. In the 1970s, the first personal computers were sold. Fitting on a desktop, they were much faster and more powerful than the computers that had once filled large rooms. Computers were also affordable to individual consumers, making it possible for many people to use them for personal, business, and academic needs. By the mid-1990s, laptop computers capable of millions of calculations per second had been developed. Currently, nearly half of American homes have a personal computer, and businesses have come to rely on computers for nearly every function. Computers are becoming smaller and more powerful than they were. In future, it looks like computers will be used in almost every aspect of people’s lives and we might not even realize how significant this effect might b e. Lots of business owners and just common people are excited and optimistic a...

Monday, August 19, 2019

COP 3530, Discrete Data Structures and Algorithms, Summer 1999, Homework 7 :: UFL Florida Computer Programming Homework

Class Notes: Data Structures and Algorithms Summer-C Semester 1999 - M WRF 2nd Period CSE/E119, Section 7344 Homework #7 -- Due Wed 21 July 1999 : 09.30am (Revised Date) In class, we discussed minimum spanning trees (MSTs) and the algorithms that derive MSTs from a graph specification. Using your class notes as a guide, answer the following questions. Note: The graph specifications from Homework #5 have been used with slight modifications, to make the data structures more familiar for you. Comments in response to student questions are in red typeface. * Question 1. Write pseudocode (not Java code) for Prim's algorithm that we discussed in class. Beside each step, write the number of external I/O, memory I/O, incrementation, comparison, and other types of operations employed. Note in the above description that Prim's algorithm (for MST) is to be used, not Dijkstra's (for Shortest Path). The use of Dijkstra's was a typo...my apologies... Then, construct a work budget for each type of operation, together with a Big-Oh estimate of complexity for each of the following graph representations: (a) adjacency matrix, (b) edge list, and (c) adjacency list. * Question 2. Repeat Question 1 for Kruskal's algorithm that we discussed in class. * Question 3. Given the following graph specification (assume directed edges only) for G = (V,E), write out the order of edges with which Prim's algorithm constructs the MST, starting at vertex a. (The third value (integer) in each edge triple is its weight.) (1 point each): (a) V = {a,b,c,d,e,f}, E = {(a,b,1), (b,c,3), (a,c,2), (c,d,4), (c,e,5), (e,f,2),(b,f,3)}. (b) V = {a,b,c,d,e,f}, E = {(d,a,2), (b,c,4), (a,b,2), (e,b,3), (c,e,1), (b,d,1)}. (c) Analyze the complexity of each case ((a) and (b), above) by constructing a work budget similar to Question 1, but for the adjacency list representation only, followed by a Big-Oh estimate. (2 points total) * Question 4. Repeat Question 3 with b as the start vertex. * Question 5. Repeat Question 3 for Kruskal's instead of Prim's, without regard to the start vertex. * Question 6. Repeat Question 3 for Kruskal's instead of Prim's, using the following graph specifications, without regard to the start vertex:

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Comparing the Huxtables with My Family Essay -- comparison compare con

Compating the Huxtables with My Family    Watching a comedy sitcom like The Cosby Show is a great way to unwind from a stressful day at school. The show's characters are likeable and the storyline is humorous, but halfway through the program I usually turn the television off and return to the kitchen to wash the dinner dishes. Watching The Cosby Show makes me feel guilty. The Huxtables are too perfect. Their house is too perfect. In comparison to the Huxtables I feel like an unfit mother in a slovenly, dysfunctional family. The characters on The Cosby Show should be portrayed in a more realistic manner; in fact, the program could be far more entertaining, not to mention relaxing, if certain aspects of the program such as weekday mornings, sibling quarrels and housework were made more believable.    To begin with, mornings are just too perfect at the Huxtables' house. In the kitchen the table is set; fresh flowers are in a vase, and milk is in a glass pitcher. The entire Huxtable family is simultaneously dressed and ready in clean, ironed, co-ordinated clothes. Everyone's hair is perfect and Mrs. Huxtable's makeup is flawless. The Huxtables even eat breakfast together. The family is relaxed, in a cheerful mood, and politely taking turns discussing their schedules for the day. The children have their lunches made, their shoes on, and their bookbags ready. And if that is not enough, Mr. and Mrs. Huxtable never have to hunt for their car keys.    On the other hand, my family's day begins in complete chaos. To begin with, my kids never agree as to whose turn it is to set the table. My kids would rather go hungry than perform a chore that could possibly be someone else's. I cannot afford... ... Show do housework or laundry, yet I have never seen a pile of dirty clothes; the Huxtables do not seem to have a maid. In contrast I go to Herculean efforts to keep the Health Department from knocking on my door. I do not have time to dust. When I'm not picking up shoes, washing clothes, and screaming for anyone to vacuum, I'm on my hands and knees scraping goo off the floor with a butter knife.    I always wonder who does the housework on The Cosby Show. Perhaps the Huxtables are naturally perfect, and we are natural slobs by comparison. Nevertheless, when I watch television I do not want to feel guilty. I want to relax and laugh at others in realistic situations. Just one time I would love to see Mrs. Huxtable wake up late, be unable to decide what to wear, scream at the kids, and have to call a taxi because she can't find her car keys.   

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Carpets And Health Issues Environmental Sciences Essay

The survey aims to find the impact of wall to palisade rug in schools on the wellness of wheezing kids in the Netherlands. By concentrating on a population of diagnosed wheezing and mite allergic kids, the survey chiefly examined the concentration of Der P I – the major allergen produced by dust touchs in Europe – in both life and school environment. The consequences of the survey showed that concentration of Der P I in carpeted or non-carpeted school floors is rather low. In fact, concentration of Der P I in brooding floors is much higher than that in carpeted or non-carpeted school floors, therefore reasoning that there is no evident connexion between wall to palisade rug in schools and impairment of kids ‘s asthma symptoms. Study focused on merely one allergen as stated! Nriagu, J. , et Al. 1999. Prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in South-central Durban, South Africa. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15, ( 8 ) : 747-755 The survey aims to find the prevalence of respiratory and asthma symptoms in Durban, by exhaustively questioning random portion of the population. Based on the replies given, the survey concludes that there is no evident connexion between asthma in kids and the usage of rugs. Durban is a to a great extent polluted country – people evidently consider pollution a much more important subscriber to asthma! Dieted, R. , Hedge, A. 1996. Toxicological considerations in measuring indoor air quality and human wellness: Impact of new rug emanations. Critical reappraisals in toxicology, 26, ( 6 ) :633-707 The survey provides an overview of the surveies carried out boulder clay 1996 refering toxicological impact of new rug emanations on IAQ and human wellness, with the purpose of sum uping the scientific cognition so far. Taking everything into history, the survey concludes that non merely do new rugs emit entire VOCs at really low degrees, but these emanations significantly decay and fall at hint degree within a hebdomad. Furthermore, toxicological appraisals of dominant VOCs in rug emanations indicate concentration of compounds below thresholds for toxicity. Based on the above mentioned, the survey suggests that VOC emanations from new rugs are far from presenting a wellness hazard.ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CARTETS AND ASTHMA OR ALLERGIESKrieger, J.W. , et Al. 2000. Asthma and the place environment of low-income urban kids: Preliminary findings from the Seattle – King County healthy places project. Journal of urban wellness, 77, ( 1 ) : 50-67 The survey describes how indoor environmental conditions are connected to asthma triggers among kids in a low-income urban country like Seattle/King County. Data was obtained from interviews with the caretakers of kids aged 4-12 old ages with relentless asthma life in really hapless families, while place reviews provided auxiliary information. Overall, it is proven that hapless life conditions and deficient financess create an indoor environment that favors substandard lodging, moistness and deficiency of hygiene. In such occasions, even rugs could go harmful dust reservoirs, since normally no peculiar attention is taken for their care – sometimes there is non even a vacuity cleaner available. As a affair of fact, 76.8 % of kids ‘s sleeping rooms had rugs, which due to hapless care, wet, deficient airing and accrued dust, contribute to the exposure to all kinds of asthma and allergies triggers. Makes sense! Platts-Mills, T.A. , et Al. 1996. Changing constructs of allergic disease: the effort to maintain up with existent alterations in life styles. Journal of Allergy & A ; Clinical Immunology, 98, ( 6 ) : 297-306. The survey assumes that the debut of rugs as lasting fixtures may hold affected the development of allergic reactions and asthma over the last century. That is to state, it is assumed that, while till the early 1900s rugs were on a regular basis beaten and put in storage during the summer, the innovation of vacuity cleansing agent resulted in rugs being used as lasting fixtures, without though being every bit clean as earlier. The survey besides implies that since back in the 1900s rugs were unusual in lodging of low-income households, the 1s which were owned by affluent households were unbroken clean. Premises based on historical alterations in life style! Norback, D. , et Al. 1995. Asthmatic symptoms and volatile organic compounds, methanal and C dioxide in homes. Occupational and environmental medical specialty, 52, ( 6 ) : 388-395 The survey examines the relation between symptoms of asthma, constructing features and indoor concentration of volatile organic compounds in Uppsala. The methodological analysis concerned the random choice of both wheezing and non-asthmatic objects and the review of their houses in order to mensurate room temperature, air humidness, VOCs, respirable dust, and C dioxide concentration. In add-on, all the objects underwent a series of clinical trials. Sing rugs, the consequences of the survey indicate a strong connexion between nocturnal shortness of breath and wall to palisade rug, irrespective of the objects ‘ age, sex, or smoking wonts. Furthermore, formaldehyde concentration was found to be higher in homes with wall to palisade rug, while the effects of house dust touchs and carpeting on nocturnal thorax stringency were important even when the effects of methanal and VOCs were controlled. Finally, the survey suggests that wall to palisade rugs should be avoided, since they act as terminals for assorted types of pollutants. Presence of wall to palisade rugs merely in 18 % of the homes – how dependable is that per centum? More information about the quality of the rugs would be utile! The survey indicates a strong connexion between rugs and nocturnal shortness of breath – nevertheless the extent to which this connexion leads to severe wellness hazards is non clarified. Furthermore small information is given about the province of the houses, ie clean or muffle – since merely 16 % had seeable marks of moistness, most of them sound as if they were in a good province. Since Sweden is known to be a affluent state, it could be assumed that many rugs are of new engineering – does this play any peculiar function? hypertext transfer protocol: //www.carpet-rug.org/news-room/press-releases/010830_myths.cfmMyth No. 1â€Å" There are wellness hazards associated with rug. †Truth:An extended toxicological appraisal of constituents of rug concluded that the chemicals in rug pose no wellness hazards of public concern.Mention:In 1994, Environ Corporation of Arlington, Virginia, prepared a survey, A Safety Assessment of Components of and Emissions from Carpets. The decision was: â€Å" For the chemicals identified as being present in, but non emitted from rug, there is no ground to believe that they present any wellness hazard of public concern. For chemicals identified as being from rug, no malignant neoplastic disease hazard of public wellness concern is predicted for any chemical separately, or when the predicted upper bound on hazard is added for all possible carcinogens. Similarly, no non-carcinogenic effects of public wellness concern would be anticipated. †Myth No. 2â€Å" Mold and mold can turn in rug. †Truth:Mold and mold exist ONLY where there is extra wet and soil coupled with hapless cleansing and care wonts. Mold growing can happen on any surfacefrom windowpanes to carpetthat is non decently maintained and when wet is utmost. Extinguishing beginnings of inordinate wet, such as H2O leaks, and commanding humidness greatly offset the possible for cast to turn.Mention:In a survey conducted by HOST/Racine Industries, six Florida schools were checked for indoor air jobs triggered by high humidness and decreased airing. Dust-lined, mouldy canals and plumbing leaks onto ceiling tiles allowed cast to turn and released 1000000s of spores into the air. The research supported that cast and mold are non associated with a peculiar surface, such as rug.Myth No. 3â€Å" Rug is a cause of the asthma and allergy addition. †Truth:Comparison informations from Sweden supports that there is no nexus between rug use and the incidence of asthma or allergic reactio ns. CRI is non cognizant of any published scientific research showing a nexus between rug and asthma or allergic reactions.Mention:A survey, based on historical figures for 10 old ages, was reported by scientists at the Swedish Institute of Fibre and Polymer Research. They found that while the usage of rug in Sweden had steadily decreased since 1975, the happenings of allergic reactions in the general population had increased. Carpet Usage & A ; Allergic Reactions in Sweden, 1975-1990Myth No. 4â€Å" Rug is a sink for allergy-causing substances. †Truth:This is true as stated. The critical point, nevertheless, is frequently missed. Carpet holds allergen-causing substances tightly and, as a consequence, keeps allergens from going airborne, minimising the degree of allergens in the external respiration zone. This translates to take down exposure potency. The allergens held by rugs filter-like consequence may be removed by hoovering, reviewing the filter-like belongingss of the rug to let more material to be removed from the air. Vacuuming mattresses, rug, and upholstery one time or twice a hebdomad removed allergens, including dust mite fecesa known beginning of allergen. It is of import to utilize the proper type of vacuity to minimise re-suspending allergens.Mention:InA Carpet and Airborne Allergens, A Literature Review, Dr. Alan Luedtke refers to the consequences of a survey aimed at finding the con sequence of everyday hoovering cleansing that indicate frequent vacuity cleansing over a short clip significantly reduces house dust and touch allergen degrees in rugs. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) surveies indicate the effectivity of rug in cut downing airborne atoms. This information indicates that dirt in rug is significantly reduced following cleansing. Visit CRIs web site to larn about the Green Label Vacuum Cleaner IAQ Testing Program that approves vacuity cleaner theoretical accounts that are most effectual in dirt remotion and dust containment, while maintaining rug looking good.Myth No. 5â€Å" Rug is a beginning of indoor quality ( IAQ ) jobs. †Truth:As noted antecedently, an extended toxicological appraisal of constituents of, and emanations from, rug concluded that the chemicals in rug â€Å" present no wellness hazards of public wellness concern. † Further, allergens in rug may be removed by hoovering. Vacuum cleaner machines bearing the CRI IAQ Green Label meet scientifically established criterions for dirt remotion and dust containment and aid keep good rug visual aspect.Mention:EPA/RTIA Total Building Cleanin g Effectiveness StudyA provinces, â€Å" Organized cleansing contributes to decrease of atom VOCs and biological pollutants 50 % + . † Besides referenced is the antecedently mentioned 1994 study from the Environ Corporation, Safety AssessmentA of Components of and Emissions from Rugs.Myth No. 6â€Å" Rug is more expensive and harder to keep than hard-floor surfaces. †Truth:Properly maintained rug merely needs hoovering one time or twice hebdomadal and periodic extraction cleansing. The sweeping, swabbing, depriving, waxing, and buffing that difficult surface floors demand are more arduous and dearly-won.Mention:A Building Office Managers Association ( BOMA ) survey found hard-surface floors require two-and-a-half times more one-year cleansing than rug. Consumers may bespeak CRIs brochuresA Carpet, the Educated Choice forA Schools, Carpet Maintenance for School Facilities, andA Use Life CostA Analysis for Commercial FacilitiesA to larn about the life-cycle cost analysis and the value rug delivers through heat, comfort, safety, and acoustics in the schoolroom and at place.Myth No. 7â€Å" Rug is environmentally non-sustainable. †Truth:CRI member companies, stand foring over 90 per centum of the industrys makers, have an first-class path record over the last twelve old ages of diminishing wastes produced and energy consumed, bettering the industrys sustainability.Mention:The Rug and Rug InstitutesA Sustainability Report, 2001A inside informations theA industrys environmental attempts.Myth No. 8â€Å" Rug is a major emitter of volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) . †Truth:Most new interior trappingss and edifice stuffs emit VOCs for a period of clip. Emissions from new rug are among the lowest of any families indoor trappingss, and most VOCs dissipate within 24 hourseven faster with good airing.Mention:To farther minimise other IAQ concerns, stipulate low-emitting merchandises, including CRI Green Label rug, shock absorber, and adhesive, when choosing family merchandises and trappingss.Myth No. 9â€Å" Formaldehyde is used in the production of new rug. †Truth:Formaldehyde is non used in the rug fabrication procedure. It is non emitted from new rug.Mention:An article published in 1989 in theA American Textile Chemist and ColoristsA JournalA stated that research conducted by the School of Textile Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, under Dr. Wayne Tincher and other research workers dispelled this widely-held myth. In add-on, the CRI Indoor Air Quality Testing Programs specifically monitor for formaldehyde emanation from new rug, rug shock absorber, and installing adhesives as portion of the industrys confidence to the populace of the absence of this chemical in these merchandises.Myth No. 10â€Å" Latex in rug produces allergic reactions. †Truth:The latex that holds the fibres and endorsing together in broadloom rug is man-made. Man-made latex is non associated with the allergic reactions of n atural latex, which are caused by the proteins found in natural latex.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Jeronimo Martins Group’s Consolidated Balance Sheet Essay

Jeronimo Martins Group’s Consolidated Balance Sheet as of 31 December 2011 and 31 December 2010, has been analyzed respectively the correspondents values, structure and relevant changes for assets and Liabilities & Shareholder’s Equity with following conclusions: I.The main assets of Jeronimo Martins Group are noncurrent (about 75%) concentrated mostly in tangible assets (about 50%) followed for the intangible assets (about 18%); II.The current assets are mostly inventories and cash or cash equivalent; III.The main liabilities of Jeronimo Martins Group are current (about 55%) concentrated mostly in trade creditors, accrued costs and deferred income; IV.The noncurrent liabilities are mostly Borrowings; V.Total Shareholders’ Equity represent around 30% of Total Shareholders’ Equity and Liabilities; VI.The biggest changes in assets, 2010 to 2011, are referred to derivative financial Instruments (-78%) and Cash and Cash equivalents (74%); VII.Changes, 2010 to 2011, in current assets are 27,1% and noncurrent are 2,4%; VIII.The biggest changes in liabilities and total equity are referred to retained earnings (250%) and fair value and other reserves (-101%), provisions for risk and contingences (106%); IX.Changes, in 2010 to 2011, in current liabilities are 11% and noncurrent are -27% and total equity are 32,63%; The structure, values and changes listed above means that Jeronimo Martins Group had, in 2010 and 2011, mostly of its assets as noncurrent, which aren’t expect to be converted into cash or consumed within 12 month. The current ratio is below 1, so this company doesn’t have a big liquidity. Analyzed the 10 biggest companies in the food area, the current ratio is below those values observed such as in Dole food company (current ratio is 1,5). The current ratio is an entity ability to meet its current obligations or to maturing short term obligations, is an important measure of its financial health. This company present 0,406 (2010) and 0,464 (2011) current ratios, more current liabilities than current assets. The total debt to equity ratio represents the long term viability of the company, measure the degree of the indebtedness relative to its equity funding. This company present 2 (2010 and 2011) total debt to equity ratio, more total debt than equity, this imply that greater is this ratio greater is strain on the company to make regular payments to debts holders and higher is the risk of bankruptcy.